Meeting # 1598
February 19, 1998
The Making of a Lapidary
George William Smart, CSM
Certified Supreme Master
American Society of Gemcutters
Assembly Room, A. K. Smiley
This paper describes that a Lapidary is both a
person and an art whose interest in gemstones includes
collecting, displaying, cutting, selling, mounting, and otherwise
showing an interest in beautiful cut and polished gems. The
emphasis in on faceting, that is, cutting certain faces on a
transparent stone so that it will reflect or disperse light in a
way that is pleasing to the eye.
We trace the interest of one person from
complete ignorance of the process, to a limited understanding of
how a gemstone is transformed from a ragged crystal into a
sparkling beauty that finds its place on a lady's finger.
Reference is made to gems and minerals in the
Bible, and ancient use of stones to decorate and enhance various
objects. A brief description of precious gems refers to diamonds,
emeralds, sapphires and rubies. Synthetic gems are described.
Keywords: Gemstones, lapidary, faceting,
cutting-evaluation, precious stones, synthetic stones, Bible
stones, Quartzsite, diamond, ruby, emerald, sapphire.
George William Smart was born and raised in Glendale,
California. He graduated from Gordon College In Boston, Mass. in
1936, and took graduate seminary degrees at Gordon Divinity
School, Berkeley Baptist Divinity School and Central Baptist
Theological Seminary. Additional studies took him to the
University of Nevada, and the University of California at
Berkeley. He is married and has two children.
He was ordained to the Christian Ministry by the First Baptist
Church of Georgetown, Mass. which he pastored until 1939 when he
was appointed by the American Baptist denomination to the Tahoe
Indian Parish in Nevada. After 14 years in Nevada, he became
Chaplain of the federal government's Haskell Indian Institute in
Lawrence, Kansas. Ten years Bier as President of the Cook Indian
Theological Seminary in Phoenix, he directed the building of a
new campus in Tempe. Two 'pale-face' pastorates followed in
California¾ the First Baptist Church
of Calimesa and Grandview Baptist in Grand Terrace.
His published History of Nevada Indian Missions was part of
his Doctorate of Theology studies at Central Baptist Seminary in
Kansas City, KS. He was president of the National [Fellowship of
Indian Workers, and of Ministerial Associations in Lawrence,
Kansas and Carson City, Nevada. this Nevada friends of the Washo
Tribe named him Honorary Chief Wa-Pai-Shone, for his service to
the three major tribes in Nevada¾
Washo, Paiute, Shoshone.
He is a member of the First Baptist Church in Redlands,
maintains a General Class Ham Operators license, is a Certified
Supreme Master facetor of the American Society of Gemcutters.
Other hobbies include bonsai, orchids, and dabbling with
woodworking. He has enjoyed the humane and ethereal atmosphere of
Fortnightly Club since 1989.
Before I retired frown day to day activity in the practice of
Ministry, I had often wondered if I would become, when I did
retire, an obstacle in the daily life of my wife. How could I
avoid being under foot?
Actually I had hoped that the bag of hobbies I had been
neglecting, filled with activities crying for attention, would be
opened so that some of them might find expression. During my
working career I seldom had enough time to indulge myself in such
'trivia'. But the Lord was good in allowing some leisure after my
first retirement, and I indulged myself in a long-forgotten
enterprise. I have entitled this paper "The Making of a
What is a lapidary? A dictionary describes LAPIDARY as both an
activity, and a person. It is derived from a Latin word meaning
stone. Is it a display of stones like those of Stanley K=fmacher
sometime at our local museum? Is it a company like Covington
Engineering and Lapidary at the corner of Texas and Colton
avenues? Is it a gem dealer in the Malt or one who cuts'
polishes, or engraves a stage? or maybe the word refers to the an
itself? When I was first called a lapidary, I didn't know whether
to accept or deny the appellation.. Actually a lapidary is all of
The veteran lapidary, gemologist, and diamond cutter, Gerald
Wykoff, writes, "Lapidary--especially the faceting
disciple--commands a full appreciation as a skill of the highest
and most interesting order.
"Most people react in simply frank amazement to the
apparent ditty that must be involved In creating such incredible
demonstrations of rigidly sequenced beauty. Yet the faceter will
readily admit that faceting is a relatively simple procedure,
easily taught and easily learned. However, it involves a whole
series of collateral and diagnostic Kilts that influence the
outcome. The faceters skill and decision-making are devoted
to releasing the physical chemical, and optical personality of a
gem material. A properly faceted aquamarine is a majestic sight,
but no additional beauty can be achieved in this species of beryl
than will be allowed by its gemological limits."
THE MAKING OF A LAPIDARY
My special interest in Lapidary was to facet gems. How did I
become a Lapidary, and why? If you will bear with me, and allow
me to recount some personal data, I will try to get on with it,
and eventually get to some hard facts about stones!
As a child my only contact with minerals and crystallography
was limited to viewing a quartz crystal in a display case at the
home of a cousin on a deny ranch in Covina, CA.
In a college dormitory in Boston, Mass. I moved into a room
with a supposedly empty closet. I found, however, a rock filled
with amethyst crystals. It seemed to me to be a treasure.
For two summers I was employed as a door-to-door salesman in
the state of Maine, selling Bibles. That was a tough job, for I
was not born to be a salesman, nor did I care very much whether I
learned. But tramping through rural roads of Maine, this
Californian leaned to lice the Maine woods, and especially the
wild strawberries and blueberries that grew In abundance.
More importantly, there were many stone quarries in Maine.
This salesman discovered it was a rewarding and a unique
experience to stop and explore a quarry, pouring through the
detritus looking for crystals of various minerals, such as
quartz, mica, hornblende, occasional garnets. He often sent some
specimens home to the parents in California.
After beginning to write this paper, I discovered a long
forgotten letter I had written to my father over 60 years
earlier, ---in 1934 --- from the town of Rumford, Maine, where I
was exploring quarries. The letter described a visit with a young
geologist who took me out to see a tourmaline mine. He also gave
me some samples of rough gem material, including Maine
Tourmaline. Much to my surprise that letter included detailed
drawings of his home-made faceting machine. My purpose in the
letter was to suggest that my father build such a machine at home
in California. Directions were included for using the machine to
This interest in faceting in 1934 had completely left my mind,
for I was under the impression that my concern for this hobby
began only after my retirement in 1975 in Yucaipa The stored
unconscious fascination became a lively conscious activity.
Back to New England. Stones that exhibited a crystalline shape
fascinated me for I knew nothing about such phenomena. Nor did I
know the names of more than two or three minerals. It so happened
at the end of my senior year that I was chosen to be one of the
college graduation speakers. Since I was majoring in religion I
chose a gemstone theme, "Treasures of Darkness", using
a biblical text which referred to the formation of crystals deep
in the crust of the earth, treasures from the Creator. The
prophet Isaiah gave this a religious application, whereby those
in the darkness of sin might become beautiful jewels (i.e.,
persons) before the Creator. Upon later reflection, the speech
unwittingly revealed to me that my love for these strikingly
beautiful nature gems formed by the hand of the Creator was to
become an enduring facet of my life.
Yews passed Eventually I became a missionary, serving among
the Indians of western Nevada. Early on I was involved in
erecting a stone church adjacent to the campus of the Stewart
Indian school at Carson City, matching the brightly colored stone
offices and dormitories of this government boarding school. For
our Chapel we scoured the countryside, the mines, the hot
springs, the stone outcroppings for building materials. Green,
yellow, pink, slate, black, red rocks were hauled¾ load after load of dump trucks filled our
building site. What a lesson in stone! But we found no crystals¾ until we started building¾ then various students brought from their
home reservations, crystals of all sorts to be placed in our
More years passed. No opportunity to pursue my interest.
Eventually I found myself in Arizona, hiking down a trail into
Canyon de Chelly. A guide called attention to some ants beside
the trail. They were bringing up from their hole small round red
grains of sand. But not by sand. They were tiny bright red,
transparent garnets. Help yourself he said. What a surfing
treasure, I thought, as I folded them into paper in my pocket.
Many more years passed. Finally Retirement. Living In
California. During a visit to San Clemente, a cousin from the
same family that had previously displayed quartz crystals in
Covina, introduced me to the art of not merely collecting stones,
using them for gems. Cousin George showed me crystals like I had
never seen before. He showed me cabachons (which I had never
heard of). Cabachons are stones of various colors and minerals
that have been shaped and polished to fit into rings and belt
buckles and bola ties. Generally dome-shaped. Then he showed me
crystallized minerals that were beautifully transparent. Some of
these he had faceted into beautiful gems set in rings or
pendants. It all seemed so new! I had totally forgotten my
earlier brush with lapidary fifty years before!
By this tune, I was all eyes and ears. And when he offered me
the opportunity to travel with him to Quartzsite, Arizona to
attend a small gem and mineral show, I grabbed at it like a
monkey snatching a banana from his keeper. A social and kinship
relationship blossomed between two cousins and their wives around
a new and thrilling hobby. With our trailers, we traveled to the
desert surrounding Quartzsite AZ¾ a tiny town of a few hundred souls that over the years was going
to explode in the month of February to at least a million people¾ snowbirds and the rest of us! Camping was
free, but if you had to buy water, it would cost plenty for a
gallon. We took our own water from Yucaipa!
Let me tell you about the phenomena of Quartzsite! The gem and
mineral club in Quartzsite had begun a rock and mineral show with
only a few exhibitors in a small building. Snowbirds who were
also rockhounds heard about the free camping among Bureau of Land
Management sagebrush The few RV rigs grew each year as word
spread across the country that something exciting was happening
in the western Arizona desert. Before long thousands of RVs were
spread across the sagebrush for miles in every direction.
Tailgaters with their own brands of merchandise joined the show.
New groups opened new venues. The sale and display of gems and
minerals, while still the main event, attracted those who had
antique items for sale¾ china,
handwork, telephones, cloth goods, jewelry of all sorts, games,
hats, canes, tools, appliances¾ and
eventually expensive RVs were on sales display, with price tags
of hundreds of thousands of dollars. After ten to twelve years of
attendance this interested customer (that's me!) called it quits;
it became too difficult to get around the hordes of people who
flocked to the event.
BECOMING A LAPIDARY
During our travels there, with a few modest pieces of
equipment, I began working with gems and my cousin took me under
his wing. He had moved to Hemet. He invited me and my wife to
spend a day in his mobile home. He sat me down at his Graves
faceting machine. For four hours in the morning and four more
hours in the afternoon, he taught me the art of faceting a
gemstone. It was a pink synthetic sapphire, cut in brilliant
round. Yes, I am wearing the sapphire today in a ring!
Eventually I found a faceting machine advertised in the Greet
Sheet. It happened to be a duplicate of the one on which I cut my
first stone. By this time I was thoroughly hooked on the great
beauty that came from turning a crude rough crystal stone into
faceted gem that reflected light and dispersed colors in all
directions. What a thing of beauty!
We four cousins continued to trailer together to Arizona until
one year my companion confided to me that this would be his last
trip. He had cancer, not responding to treatment. By this time I
had entered a few gem competitions and won a ribbon or two in
second or third or last place. I had joined the American Society
of Gemcutters, and began sending my gemstones for evaluation. I
came to be rated a guildsman and a journeyman, hoped to become a
certified master before my mentor in Hemet passed on to his
heavenly reward. He departed this life before I could tell him
that one of my stones had fortunately passed the scrutiny of a
board of judges with a score of 99.9%, winning a Pinnacle Award.
The society sent me notice that I had become certified as a
Supreme Master of the lapidary craft.
FACETING A GEM
How is a gem faceted? A rough piece of aquamarine, for
example, is placed on the end of a brass rod called a dop-stick
held fast by a wad of softened wax. The rod is secured in the
faceting-machine spindle. It is lowered on to a round flat
diamond-charged lap, much like an old phonograph record, that
turns at variable speeds. With water dripping from a tank to keep
the process cool, the operator chooses an angle from the
protractor. Since this gem is to be cut as a round brilliant, an
index plate will turn the stone to the proper location as guided
by the cutting instructions. Moving from a coarse grind to ever
smaller, all facets on the underside are cut and polished. The
bottom half of a gem is called the pavilion. The dopstick and
stone are removed from the machine; the stone is reversed by
transferring to another dopstick and reinserted in the machine.
The upper half (called the crown) is now cut. The last facet to
be completed is the flat top called the table. The round edge,
called the girdle, is usually cut as part of the pavilion. 14,000
grit diamond powder on a tin/lead polishing lap will polish the
aquamarine, and most every gem available.
What have I learned during the fifteen years I have pursued
this lapidary hobby? I leaned a little bit about numerology. I
learned a little bit about gemstones¾
precious, semi-precious, and plain beauties. I learned a little
bit about crystallography, and the characteristics of different
minerals. I learned a tiny bit about their molecular structure. I
learned about the specific gravity of stones, their refractive
index, their chemical composition. I learned individual stones
had differed refraction and reflection, dispersion and
fluorescence . I learned the difference between a marquis cut and
a round brilliant, an emerald cut and an oval. I learned
something of various grits to abrade a stone into shape,
polishing it, using diamond charged laps, etc., etc.
If you will note the accompanying diagram, you will see the
names of the various facets, the Girdle circles the stone and
delineates the top and bottom. The upper half (actually upper
third) is called the Crown, bottom is the Pavilion; the point at
the bottom the Apex or Culet; the flat top is the Table. The Main
facets in the Pavilion are at such an angle that they reflect
light upward through the Table. Star facets surround the Table,
and girdle facets are above and below the girdle add decoration
to the gem, and increase its brilliance The standard Amencan
Brilliant has 57 surfaces.
HOW IS A STONE JUDGED?
A stone submitted for evaluation is not judged on its inner
flaws or inclusions which do not reach the surface, but rather on
the fineness of the workmanship. First, judges look at the visual
effect, noting the uniformity of facets in size, sharpness of
edges, fineness of polish with no abrasions, stacking of facets
above and below one another, and general consistency of overall
proportions. The table must be parallel to the girdle, and the
girdle line must be even and uniform in thickness. In both the
crown and the pavilion, judges look for accurate meet-points
where the angles come together. The crown must be aligned
accurately above the pavilion. Dimensions called for in the
contest directions must be precise¾
accurate to a hundredth of a millimeter.
A recent evaluation sheet contained these comments frown a
judge: Sides well squared, but with non-standard dimensions (shy
by one tenth of a millimeter), Superb polishing! All meet-points
executed with precision and consistency; Facets brought to Table
and girdle evenly and edges all sharp with no evidence of
abrading; Girdle even all the way around the periphery, Culet tip
is sharp, and pointed; culet facets are chisel/spade-shaped; A
very nice stone¾ good demonstration
of master faceting. Refer this to the Pinnacle Committee. A grade
of 99.9 out of 100 points. This earned the facetor a rating of
Certified Supreme Master.
ANCIENT USE OF GEMS
Often gemologists are curious about the ancient use of gems.
Wright and Chadbourne in "Gems and Minerals of the
Bible" claimed there were 1700 references to gemstones and
minerals in the Holy Bible, under 124 Greek and Hebrew names. Of
these, they described in detail 62 gems and minerals¾ from Adamant to Zircon. Not a few of
those named in the ancient versions are obscure and re-identified
in newer versions of the Bible.
Although Adamant is currently used to mean something very hard
and unyielding, its use in the Old Testament doubtless referred
to some form of corundum rather than diamond which was unknown
until about 12 A.D. Gold, silver and copper were widely known
from earliest time as choice minerals.
The use of agate and iron, jasper and marble was widespread.
Of the gemstones, turquoise, lapis lazuli, coral, agate, jade and
zircon were widely Mown among ancient peoples. The first recorded
search for agate was made by the Egyptian in 3500 B. C.
1h the ancient book of Job, precious stones are compared to
The value of wisdom is more than coral or crystal or rubies.
The finest topaz and the purest gold cannot compare with the
value of wisdom. (Job 28:18 TEV).
One of the most interesting displays of gemstones was the
breastplate fashioned and worn by the High Priest Aaron, brother
of Moses, around 1200 B.C. Twelve stones arranged in four rows of
three, have been identified in modem terms as: Red jasper,
Citrine Quartz, Emerald, Ruby, Lapis Lazuli, Rock crystal
(quartz), Golden sapphire, Blue sapphire, Amethyst, Yellow
Jasper, Golden Beryl, Chrysoprase.
The prophet Ezekiel, writing in 586 B. C. described people in
the City of Tyre as living in the garden of the Lord, and wearing
gems of every }and: "rubies and diamonds; topaz, beryl,
carnelian, and jasper, sapphire, emeralds and garnet; ¾ walking among sparking gems."
The New Jerusalem, described in the last book of the Bible, is
said to have shone like a rare jewel, like a jasper clear as
crystal. The foundation stones are listed, ¾
jasper, sapphire, agate, emerald, onyx, carnelian, quartz, beryl,
topaz, chalcedony, turquoise, amethyst. The twelve gates were
twelve pearls, and the streets were pure gold as clear as glass.
This Vision seems to be the answer to the earlier description
of the GIRD as a Lapidary, in Isaiah, (ch 54):
O Jerusalem, you suffering helpless city wig no one to comfort
you. I will build your foundations with precious stones. I will
build your towers with rubies, your gates with stones that glow
like fire, and the wall around you with jewels.
Of all the minerals on earth, four seem to have caught the
attention of He world, ¾ Platinum,
gold, silver and copper. It a similar fashion of the nearly 500
gems described by Shumann in his "Gemstones of tire Work!',
four have captured the world's fancy, and been labeled
"Precious Stones". Among the gemstones crowding the
modern jeweler's display cabinets, only four merit the term
'precious': Emerald, Sapphire, Ruby, Diamond. And since Ruby is
the red form of Sapphire, that leaves just Free minerals In the
Gemstones are rated for relative hardness of a scale developed
by Friedrich Mohs of Vienna before 1839. He chose ten minerals of
different hardness for comparison on a scale of one to ten. This
scale ranges from softness like talc, which is given a One, to
diamond which is given a Ten. Each mineral in the series can
scratch the one below it with a pointed instrument. Quartz is
given a 7, topaz 8, corundum 9, and diamond a 10. Of the precious
gems, Emerald is the softest of these, with a hardness of 7 1/2
to 8; sapphire, a Nine.
The name emerald comes from Greek which in turn came from
Persia, and was used to refer to any green stone. Emerald belongs
to the beryl group which includes aquamarine. Its chemical
composition is aluminium beryllium silicate. Hardness 8. Specific
gravity 2.75. Dispersion factor is low (0.014). It crystallizes
in hexagonal form, as a column. Deep green is the most valuable,
even though it may have inclusions of gas bubbles or foreign
Such inclusions are evidence of genuineness as compared to
synthetic or imitations, and are called by experts
"jardin" (garden). The most implant mines are in
Columbia' South America, and were worked by the Incas, then
Spaniards, sometimes forgotten until recent years. Other finds
have been made in Africa, the Urals, and in the United States.
Because emeralds are sensitive to knocks, the emerald cut (step
cut) was developed, with four corners being truncated. Often
these stones are worn in their natural crystal form.
Sapphire is found in many hues: black purple, green, yellow,
orange, pink, blue, and clear. It has a hardness of 9, next to
the diamond. Specific gravity 4.00 (much heavier than emerald).
Its chemical composition is aluminium oxide and crystallizes in
hexagonal form, often barrel-shaped. Its dispersion is slightly
higher than emerald, 0.018. It shows definite double refraction.
Its name comes from Greek, meaning blue. In ancient times
sapphire was understood as referring to lapis lastly. Around 1800
it was recognized that sapphire and its cousin ruby was a forth
of corundum. Misleading names were given to the various colors,
such as Oriental Topaz for the yellow. Today all colors are
called by their color, i.e. yellow or green Sapphires, except the
red variety called Ruby, and the orange pink called Padparadschah
The coloring agents in blue sapphires are iron and titanium;
chrome produces pink, vanadium, violet.. Rocks bearing this gem
are marble, basalt, or pegmatite. The most important deposits are
in Australia, Burma (Myanmar), Sri Lanka, Thailand, India. In
1894 deposits were discovered in Montana, these tend to be pale
blue or iron blue.
Synthetic sapphires are corundum that has been heated in a
furnace to form a crystal with color added. Chemically,
synthetics are exactly like natural stones, and often more pure.
Ruby is red, of varying shades, composed of aluminium oxide,
(as a sapphire) with chrome coloring. Before 1800, red spinet and
games were also designated ruby. Its hardness is 9. It has no
cleavage, but has certain directions for parting, and because of
brittleness, care must be taken when cutting and polishing.
Inclusions are common, and when cut en cabochon often show a
cat's eye, or a star (called asterism). Burma, Thailand, Sri
Lanka, Tanzania, Australia, Africa, Switzerland have deposits.
Large rubies are often more valuable than diamonds, and have long
been a part of royal jewelry.
Diamonds are colorless, yellow, brown, greenish, blue, reddish
and black. Its name refers to its hardness, Adamas, which means
unconquerable. Its cutting resistance is 140 times greater than
corundum, its nearest rival. However, its hardbess varies on its
different crystalline faces. It is not quite as heavy as
sapphire, specific gravity: 3.50. Its dispersion places above all
others, 0.044 without double refraction. This hardest of gems is
composed of one of the softest materials ordeal carbon, like our
lead pencils. It beckonsr the king of gems through a process of
extreme pressure and high temperatures.
Although the diamond as a gemstone has been known far about
2,000 years, its optical properties were developed about 1400
A.D. when the hi was developed. It full potential was realized
around 1910 when the full brilliant cut was developed. It now has
a round girdle, 32 facets on the crown and 24 or more in the
pavilion. This brilliant has 56 facets, but the Princess cut,
developed in 1965 showed 146 facets. Buyers are advised to
examine a diamond using the four Cs: clarity, carat weight,
color, and cut. An ideal angle for cutting a modern diamond is:
Crown Main angle, 34°; Pavilion Main 41°.
Laboratory-created gems. Substitutes, imitations, man-made
look-alikes have long been part of the scene. Recently I was
browsing in the Glendale Galleria with my wife. A jewelry display
window attracted my attention to a ring with a beautiful emerald
setting, surrounded by small diamonds. Its price brought us into
the store to examine it more closely. How nice it would look on
my wife's fewer. With a jewelers glass, I noted the lack of
inclusions in the green gem. Is this a real emerald?, I asked. O
yes, it is marked down because it is not the fastest setting and
we need to move it. Looking more closely, there was a tiny mark
on the tag that indicated a "Charm Emerald". Chatham is
a laboratory-created gem with a clarity and color almost too good
to be true. In fact it is too good to be a true natural stone. We
thanked the man for his kindness in showing the stone, and left
it in his shop.
Another look-alike emerald colored stone, comes from a
laboratory which took ash from Mt. St. Helens, subjected it to
intense heat in a crucible and produced a piece of volcanic glass
that has decorated many a piece of jewelry. It is not' however,
passed off as anything other than it is. It is composed of more
than twenty different minerals.
Substitutes for diamond are a frequent way to get around the
high price of diamonds. Zircon, a natural stone from the Orient,
Australia and Africa, is in its clear state a beautiful stone in
its own right, and has a fine dispersion rate (.038). Its
laboratory-created relative called cubic zirconia is more
popular. It is superior to a diamond in its brillliance, has a
hardness of 8 1/2, is 50% heavier than a diamond, is made in all
colors. Its chemical composition is zirconia calcium-oxide. Cubic
Zirconia has in recent years swept the market as an alternative
Other man-made diamond substitutes are YAG (which is
Ytrium-Aluminium-Garnet), and GGG, (gadolinium gallium garnet).
Synthetic corundum is virtually identical with that found in
nature and is without the inclusions¾
thus lab-grown rubies and sapphires are common.
The industry has agreed that a synthetic stone be labeled
exactly as it is, and be accepted as a proper gemstone, even
though it has not been pulled out of the ground. Synthetic does
not mean 'imitation' or 'substitute'. It means
In closing I quote from Techniques of Master Faceting",
by Gerald L. Wykoff:
"Anyone can learn to facet a gemstone. Faceting isn't all
that difficult.. Truth is, many of the finest faceters are
self-taught. They may have mined a few stones on the way to
expertise, but the techniques of surfacing a particular gem
crystal with a geometrically rigid pattern of optically flat
facets represents the mere tip of the iceberg.
"Faceting a gemstone isn't hard, but doing it properly
with consistent good results is a different matter. The actual
grinding and polishing of facets is pretty much controlled by
superbly designed machines available to faceters.
"You simply can't treat a ruby as you do a garnet or an
emerald or a peridot or a zircon. These are different minerals
with different qualities, and the master faceter takes all these
elements into mind as components of a process leading to a final
faceted beauty...... Knowing and responding appropriately to each
step of a sequential progression from an encrusted hunk of rough
crystal through Me cleaning and preparing stages, to the planning
and Renting, to the actual faceting, and to the final treatment
operations is what master faceting is all about."
For me, as a lapidary, the excitement comes when the final
polish is laid onto the table of a carefully cut stone, when it
is released from the dopstick, when the adhesive wax is removed,
and it is displayed under a brilliant clear light. Striking
Beauty.. Beautiful Color. Pleasing Form. Gorgeous Sparkle. These
greet the lapidary and invariably he speaks aloud to whoever may
be near, ''Come and see this!"
Gemstones of the World, Walter Schumann, Sterling, New York.
Fundamental Faceting. Henry B. Graves. 1977.
Rocks and Minerals, A.F.L. Deeson, Potter, New York. 1973.
Gems and Minerals of the Bible, Ruth Wright, Robert
Chadbourne, Harper. 1970.
Description of Gem Materials, Glenn and Martha Vargas, Thermal
CA . 1985
Faceting for Amateurs, Glenn and Martha Vargas, Thermal, CA.
Diagrams for Faceting, Glenn and Martha Vargas, Thermal, CA.
Techniques of Master Faceting, Gerald Wykoff, Adams,
Washington D.C. l985.
Good News Bible, Today's English Version, American Bible
Society, N.Y. 1976.
The Dispersion of a Stone is expressed in
figures as the difference between the RED and the VIOLET
refractive indices, ----- as when a 'rainbow' is displayed from
light passing through a crystal. The Higher the figure, the
Greater is the display of "fire" in the stone.